The concept that a single molecule can have many different biological activities was viewed with skepticism at first, but the emergence of molecular cloning of cDNA cytokines and the subsequent expression of recombinant forms has dispelled doubts.
Cytokine research has progressed quickly, exposing it to a multifunctional biological agent in a wide range of human situations. You can learn more about multiplex cytokine assay by visiting the websites on the internet.
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In host protection and immunological response, the function of cytokines is doubled. The microbial infection causes the release of a variety of cytokines, which act in a variety of ways to counteract the invasion. At the same time, additional cytokines aid dendritic cells in presenting antigens to bacteria, causing neutralizing antibodies to be produced.
The importance of cytokines' action has increased evolutionary pressure as alternatives to host protection and immune responses. This makes the study of disease response much more problematic and again underlines the need to study a number of cytokines, or cytokine receptors, at the same time.
In some cases, the immune response overreacts and changes the cytokines in the body that they are supposed to protect. When the cytokine cascades fail to close, they place the host in a chronically active cell state that dominates an inactive immune system.
The clearest example of this manifestation of hypersensitivity is an unnecessary inflammatory and febrile response, both of which can be life-threatening if left untreated.